Hugo Borchardt, born in Germany and later a naturalized U.S. citizen designed a large toggle-action semi-automatic pistol called the Borchardt C/93.
Georg Luger, born in Austria designed a pistol that was an evolution of the Borchardt design. The Luger pistol is semi-automatic, magazine-fed pistol that operates on the short-recoil principle.
In 1902 Luger developed the 9 mm Luger Parabellum by re-necking the case of the 7.65 mm Luger round. The Luger model 1904, in 9 mm Luger was adopted by the German Navy. The German Army adopted the pistol in 1908 and gave the pistol the designation Parabellum Model 08, or P.08. The Luger was the standard sidearm for the German army during WWI and WWII but was replaced by the Walther P.38.