Differences between the Mosin-Nagant 1891/30 and the Model 1938 Carbine (m/38 Carbine) are the barrel length, overall length, and length of the stock components. Also the m/38 was not issued with a bayonet nor did it have an integral bayonet that is seen on the m/44. The production run of the m/38 ran from 1938 to 1945.
1943 to 1955
Warsaw Pact and third world countries
The Sovietís had a strange fascination or dependency on bayonet capable rifles and the m/44 filled this bill by having a bayonet permanently affixed to the right side of the rifle. The m/44 carbine is pretty much a clone of the m/38 Carbine except for the bayonet. The production run of the m/44 ran from 1943 to the late 1950s.
The Soviet Block Countries took existing 1891/30 Long Rifles and cut them down to carbine size. In most cases the rifles were left using the same sights and stocks (reduced in length) that were manufactured for the 1891/30. Also the 1891/59 did not have a bayonet either issued or integral. This carbine was more a modification than a new production rifle. All the samples I have seen have the original manufacture date left on the receiver (the date the 1891/30 rifle was made) and also the assembled date of 1959.
The most commonly found m44 rifles were manufactured in either the Izhevsk and Tula Arsenals, although records show the rifle was made at many arsenals in Russia and other Warsaw Pact countries. The table below will help you identify which rifle you own.